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M4 TORNADO Spectrometer
2D Micro-XRF with Ultimate Speed and Accuracy
The Instrument of Choice for Highly Sensitive and Non-Destructive Element Analysis

The M4 TORNADO is the tool for sample characterization using small-spot Micro X-ray Fluorescence (Micro-XRF) analysis. Optimized for analysis speed and without compromising accuracy it measures a wide range of samples, whether small or large, even or irregularly shaped and generates a wealth of information on composition and element distribution.
Equipped with a large high-speed stage it supports 2D analysis of virtually any kind of inorganic, organic and even of liquid sample.
Providing spot sizes down to 25 μm (for Mo Kα radiation), excellent spatial resolution is warranted. The proven ESPRIT analysis software provides a flexible measurement setup and a variety of evaluation and processing tools. A large vacuum sample chamber supports light element detection.
The instrument can be customized to provide extended measurement ranges or even higher analysis speed: flexibility can be enhanced through installation of a second tube with a different target and a collimator. An optional second SD detector increases speed even further.
The Variety of Application Fields

Analytical performance

The analytical performance of Micro-XRF instruments is defined by several parameters. Some of the most important aspects of this analytical technique are explained considering the example of the M4 TORNADO. 

Distribution analysis of electronic components
Electrical and electronic equipment can contain toxic elements like Cr, Br, Cd, Hg or Pb. Limits are regulated by directives such as RoHS and WEEE. Compliance testing as well as monitoring the product quality can be easily done with the M4 TORNADO.

Analysis of solar cells
The efficiency of solar cells depends on their chemical composition and physical structure. In most cases the absorber of thin film cells is produced from CIGS-layers, which are Cu-In-Ga-Se or Cu-In-Ga-S compounds. Micro-XRF is ideal for R&D and quality control to check composition, thickness and homogeneity of these layers. 

Life science application – analyzing Daphnia
Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans. Because of their small size of 0.2 to 5 mm and their jumpy swimming style, they are also known as “water fleas”. The M4 TORNADO is well suited for heavy element analysis on biological samples like these. 

Particle analysis
It is often important to analyze small particles with regard to their composition to determine their origin. Here, two different examples are described: wear debris from an engine and inclusions in plastics.

Analyzing geological samples
Geological samples are inhomogeneous. The distribution analysis of their different constituents is important for understanding geological processes, exploration of mineral resources, and other applications.

Coating analysis
Low-alloy steel is highly sensitive to corrosion. This is the reason why parts and structures made of this steel are often protected by a Zn or a ZnAl coating. Here we look at analysis results of differently treated steel samples to better understand corrosion processes.

Examining corrosion processes of low-alloy steel
Low-alloy steel is highly sensitive to corrosion. This is the reason why parts and structures made of this steel are often protected by a Zn or a ZnAl coating. Here we look at analysis results of differently treated steel samples to better understand corrosion processes.

Archaeometry – examination of a Roman sword
Archaeometric objects are unique and very fragile, therefore a non-destructive analysis, like Micro-XRF, is the method of choice in learning more about such an object without damaging it.

The M4 TORNADO combines state-of-the-art X-ray generation and detection technology with an unique usability concept, resulting in a powerful, yet easy-to-use instrument for non-destructive element analysis:
About the size of a ball point pen, the convex arrangement of glass micro-capillaries focuses tube radiation on a very small spot by multiple reflection. This results in a spot intensity increase by up to 10,000x compared to a collimator. The  high radiation intensity combined with excellent spatial resolution warrant fast measurement with unprecedented level of detail.
At input count rates of 300,000 cps the XFlash® detector provides an energy resolution of better than 145 eV, thus warranting the M4 TORNADO's excellent peak separation capabilities.

The XFlash® detectors are an energy-dispersive X-ray detector series based on the silicon drift chamber principle (SDD). The detector crystal is moderately cooled by thermo-electric coolers. A monolithically integrated on-chip field effect transistor (FET) acts as a signal amplifier and supports unprecedented energy resolution. The sideward depletion of the active detector volume in connection with the integrated drift structure provides an extremely small detector capacitance that enables the use of fast signal processing techniques. 
The pulse throughput of the XFlash® detectors is higher than that of other energy-dispersive technologies by more than an order of magnitude.
Apart from increasing the speed of data acquisition, a second detector offers other additional advantages. Mounted in a different position, it allows easy identification of diffraction peaks that are invariably caused when analyzing crystalline material. A second detector also reduces shadowing effects, e.g. when mapping rough samples.

The M4 TORNADO can be fitted with an additional X-ray tube for more flexible sample excitation. The following customization options are available:
Different target materials such as molybdenum, silver, copper and tungsten
Collimator instead of polycapillary optics, useful if excitation with higher energies is required
Filter wheel with up to five filters according to specific requirements

The TurboSpeed X-Y-Z stage supports analysis "on the fly". Defining areas for measurement is aided by a dual video microscope with variable magnifications. An additional fish-eye camera provides a view of the sample chamber.
The motorized sample chamber door opens at a push of a button. The stage is at the same time automatically moved to the front where samples can be exchanged easily without having to reach inside the chamber.

The quantification procedure employed with the M4 TORNADO software ESPRIT is based on a modified version of the Sherman equation. It considers matrix effects for improved accuracy.
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